What Is Video Modeling?
Video modeling is a demonstration of the desired behavior/skill/sequence in a video format (ranging from 30 seconds to 5 minutes); it will often include multiple examples. The video is individualized to your student’s specific needs, preferences and settings. Video modeling has been shown to be effective from preschool age students and up.
Children acquire skills by observing people perform skills rather than just their personal experiences.
Video models can be created in different ways to better suit the needs of individual students:
- Basic video modeling: Basic video modeling is used to record a student (other than the target student) or staff member performing the desired behavior/skill/sequence. This video can then be viewed by the target student to teach or prompt the desired response.
- Video Self-Modeling: Video self-modeling is used to record the target student performing the desired behavior/skill/sequence. This video can then be viewed by the target student to teach or prompt the desired response.
- Point-of-View Modeling: Point-of-view modeling is used to record the student’s perspective, filming what the student would see through their eyes. For example, if you were washing your hands, it would show a top view of turning the water on and washing your hands.
- Video Prompting: Video prompting breaks a skill down into individual steps and incorporates pauses (incorporated in the recording of the video) during the video providing time for the target student to perform each step. Video prompting can be recorded with either the target student or another student modeling the correct behaviors/skills/sequence.
Why Is Video Modeling Important?
Video modeling is effective in teaching communication, social skills, academic tasks, play skills and behavioral functioning. Skills taught through video modeling are retained over time and assist in generalization across students and settings even months after the video model has faded. Video modeling allows for skills repetition which will allow these skills to become second-nature to students. Video modeling also assists students in multi-step task completion.
For video modeling to be effective, the student must be able to attend to the video so that they can later imitate the model’s behavior and basic imitation skills. Students will often be more apt to imitate people that they like or who they perceive to be somewhat like (physical characteristics, age, group affiliation, ethnicity, etc.). It is important that the video length and detail should be individualized for the student.
Video modeling works very well when paired with incentive strategies when they show appropriate target behavior/skills.
Positivity™ provides an easy way for you or your staff to provide the student a video model to prompt the appropriate behavior/skill/sequence for a specific event or situation. For example, if you want your student to raise his hand to gain attention and wait, but your student is blurting out your name, assign a video model to play on their screen prompting them to raise their hand and wait to get adult attention. This will promote increased independence, self-regulation and decrease the use of more restrictive prompts.
Implementing a Video Modeling Strategy
Video modeling is a very effective strategy provided in Positivity. Personalizing videos to your setting and student needs is important.
Step 1: Planning
- Answer these video modeling questions to help you proceed: How long can the target student pay attention to a video? Who will the student be most likely to imitate if they are shown in the video? How many steps can the student follow? Will the people being recorded do the speaking or will you have a narrator? What type of video modeling will work best for this student? If the student will be in the video, what prompts will you use?
- Write down your plan, keeping in mind the answers to the video modeling questions:
- If you are teaching your student a sequence activity (such as how to wash hands), perform the activity you are asking the student and write down each step sequentially.
- If you are teaching a social interaction, write a script for the individuals.
- Finishing Touches: Do you need to add in pauses for the student to perform steps of the task before moving on? If so, determine how much time is needed and add manual pauses to your written plan.
- Ask another person to look at it to ensure your plan is complete.
Step 2: Recording
- While fancy equipment can be used, your smartphone is adequate to record a video.
- Videos on your phone will play best in Positivity when you hold your phone at a 90-degree angle.
- Note: We recommend that you only record positive behaviors. You want to show the student what to do. You do not want to reinforce undesirable behaviors.
Step 3: Review & Upload
- Watch the video yourself to make sure it is complete and the sound and picture are clear.
- Upload the video
1. Select Strategies.
2. Select+ New Strategy.
3. Select Video Modeling.
4. Name your Strategy then choose Next
5. Select the + and upload your video.
Positivity supports recordings in many formats including .wav,.mov, .wmv, .avi, and .mp4 up to 1GB in size.
6. Give your video a title.
7. Select Save.
Positivity allows the seamless integration of video modeling throughout your day by scheduling videos into your events on the Visual Schedule. Schedule the video models to play prior to asking your student to perform the task. Videos can also be shown on-demand from the teacher’s login in preview mode.
Step 4: Directly Teach the Learner HOW to Use the Video Model
When you are initially teaching your student to use the video, you should use most to least prompting to get the desired response. At first, your student will need more prompting, then you will be able to slowly fade prompts. Be sure to reinforce your student for correct steps and for following the video model appropriately.
Step 5: Collect and Analyze Intervention Data
How do you know if it is working? Once the video model is introduced, begin to collect data to determine the success of the intervention. Positivity provides users with data including the event and time of video delivery along with the ability to add observational notes.
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Avcioglu, H. (2013). Effectiveness of video modelling in training students with intellectual disabilities to greet people when they meet*. Kuram Ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 13(1), 466-477.
Bellini, S., & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 73(3), 264-287.
Cihak, D., Fahrenkrog, C., Ayres, K. M., & Smith, C. (2010). The use of video modeling via a video iPod and a system of least prompts to improve transitional behaviors for students with autism spectrum disorders in the general education classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(2), 103-115. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098300709332346
Delano, M. E. (2007). Video modeling interventions for individuals with autism.Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), 33-42. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07419325070280010401
Mechling, L. C., Ayres, K. M., Bryant, K. J., & Foster, A. L. (2014). Comparison of the effects of continuous video modeling, video prompting, and video modeling on task completion by young adults with moderate intellectual disability. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 49(4), 491-504.
Wilson, K. P. (2013). Incorporating video modeling into a school-based intervention for students with autism spectrum disorders. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools (Online), 44(1), 105-117. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2012/11-0098)
Video Modeling: Evidence Base National Professional Development Center on ASD 10/2010